National Energy and Climate Plans

Discover what National Energy and Climate Plans mean for solar

What are NECPs? 


In 2019, the EU mandated its Member States to publish and implement 10-year National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs).


Running from 2021 to 2030, NECPs are meant to set out the Member State's targets, policies, and measures that will enable the country to reach the 2030 EU renewable targets.


In 2023, EU Member States were obliged to update their NECPs. As of October 2023, 15 of 27 member states have updated their plans (Malta makes 16, but there is no solar-specific target for Malta). 

In 2019, the EU was only aiming for 32% renewables in its energy mix by 2030. As of 2023, that target has been increased to 42.5%, with a further indicative 2.5% on the table.


Since 2019, the EU solar market has also seen remarkable solar growth. The speed and scale of the solar wave has exceeded all previous expectations. In 2022, the EU installed more than 40 GW of solar, seeing a 47% year-on-year increase from the 28 GW installed in 2021.

© European Union

Why are NECPs important for solar?


The NECPs are crucial for solar. They form the basis for the EU-27’s energy policy and strengthen the business environment for solar investments in Europe – predictability, efficiency, and transparency.


The energy transition touches every part of our lives. Systems and society must get ready. That means setting clear targets that reflect the true potential of solar. 


How have NECPs changed?


The 26 available updated NECPs from the 2023 update add a new 365 GW of EU solar ambition, The total target, for now, aims for 605 GW of solar by 2030. An extrapolation of the missing targets reaches 626 GW by 2030. 


By weighted average, the 2023 targets increased by 87% compared to the 2019 NECPs. Lithuania and Ireland stand out by multiplying their respective targets by more than 5 and 10. Poland multiplied its target by 3 while Finland, Portugal, Slovenia, and Sweden more than doubled their previous targets, with Spain increasing its target by 95%.  

Increased ambition is welcome, but at the current rate of ambition, if extrapolated to all Member States, this will result in 555 626 GW total ambition by 2030. This falls short of the EU Solar Strategy target of 750 GW and of the industry potential of 902 GW.  


Considering the most recent targets available, 3 EU countries have already reached their set solar target for 2030; 16 countries will most likely reach their target within the next 5 years; the remaining 7 are expected to reach their goals after 2027. 


The level of ambition of member states is well revealed through renewable additions per capita. Germany will reach the highest score, while Denmark, Lithuania and Portugal will approach or overshoot the value of 2000 W per capita in 2030. 

The NECP database below sets out the true scope for solar ambition in the EU, country by country:


  • Discover how much solar your country has already installed


  • Compare each country's solar target with current market projections


  • Understand the key remaining challenges


There are some recurring areas of improvement - so what's missing from NECPs? 

Support Schemes

While most NECPs at least partially describe the design of their support schemes, most of them are failing to provide long-term visibility to investors up to 2030. This is particularly problematic since investors need a clear view on auction pipelines but also on self-consumption schemes especially as we are phasing out net metering.


 19 countries fail to provide long-term visibility on support schemes, while 5 countries including BG, EE, HR, RO, SK provide at least partial information on budget or design of support schemes. In general, none of them include clear information about design of support schemes, total allocated budget and calendar up to 2030. 


Prosumers and Citizens

When it comes to decentralised solar PV generation, only 6 Member States (ES, FR, HR, IE, PT, RO) provide a quantitative target for rooftop PV (in GW or number of households equipped). The rest does not distinguish between rooftop and utility-scale, which is problematic for the visibility of the rooftop market. The description of the support dedicated and trajectory for prosumers or energy communities is, in most cases, limited or partial, with only five Member States having sufficient details on these sectors (resp. EL, FR, IE, IT, LT on prosumers and DE, EL, IE, IT, PL on energy communities) 


Flexibility and Storage

While most Member States mention at least partially a support for flexibility, only 4 of them provide a quantitative target for demand-side flexibility via smart-meter roll-out or demand-side response (BE, BG, CY, HR). When it comes to storage, 9 countries have defined dedicated targets in terms of MW, MWh or amount invested (BE, BG, CY, EL, ES, HR, HU, LT, PT). Among these 9 countries, 4 of them (BE, EL, LT, PT) have dedicated targets for batteries, small-scale storage, or storage at household level. 



While 20 Member States have at least partially described their investment strategy for transmission grids, only two of them (FR, MT) have set up dedicated support or quantitative targets for distribution grids. France has planned to increase the investment in distribution grids by 20%, while Malta mentions a series of investment in equipment for the upgrade of the grid. The lack of detail on distribution grids creates a challenge in planning for the electrified, decentralised, energy systems of 2030.

NECP Database
Analysis of National Energy and Climate plans vs. SolarPower Europe's European Market Outlook
Updated 2024
Key challenges:
  • Workers availability The main bottleneck in the country is the availability of a skilled workforce. For the connection of inverters and modules, in particular, electricians are needed. A lack of training and certification of workers is a key issue.​
  • Grid congestion The Austrian grid needs upgrading in order to keep solar development at a sustained pace. Works on the transition and distribution grid are take a long time. Presently, plans for grid-development are under preparation. This poses a challenge in Austria's solar deployment.​
  • Administrative procedures Permitting times are a bottleneck in the timely deployment of solar PV. Additionally, administrative requirements are inconsistent.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support Schemes In Flanders, the government has developed a Solar Plan for 2025, which contains 15 measures and actions to support solar deployment, with the aim to increase solar energy capacity to 8.9 GW. The measures, which are detailed in the plan, include mostly small-scale solar installations. Flanders has also developed a tax reduction schemes for State-owned buildings. The Flemish Government has also decided to introduce a PV obligation on the roofs of large electricity consumers, including consumers with an annual consumption of more than 1 GWh and public buildings with a consumption of more than 250 MWh. However, the region does not mention any specific measures targeted to utility-scale PV installations. In Wallonia, the support will continue being granted via a system of green certificates, which will be completed in the mid-term by a sustainable financing scheme. Wallonia also plans to develop tools to facilitate PPAs, which currently suffer from under-development. The plan however fails to provide clear milestones and investment volumes on the support schemes. The region mentions the support to utility-scale PV through the launch of pilot projects, a guidance of good practices, simplified procedures and alternative financing for public bodies. Here as well, the plan would have benefited from a clear visibility of the investment pipeline and the type of financial incentives used.
  • Prosumers and Citizens Wallonia will continue to provide technical assistance to individuals through energy desks and online platforms. It also proposes to accompany citizens and reduce barriers for self-consumption and energy communities. However, in both regions, it is unclear how prosumers will be actually supported, and how the government foresees the development of prosumers and energy communities. To be noted that in Flanders, there is no direct support for prosumers and the net-metering scheme will be discontinued.
  • Flexibility and Storage Flanders has developed a roadmap to develop flexibility solutions (Flexibility Plan 2025). Following this adoption, Flanders has set a target to deploy smart meters across the region, with a penetration rate of 80% for small consumers by the end of 2024. At federal level, the plan mentions a current storage capacity of 1.427 MW (1.307 MW in pumped storage and 120 MW of battery), which will be increased to 1305 MW for pumped storage, 2271 MW for large-scale storage and 477 MW for small-scale storage by 2030. The plan also provides a potential for demand-response of 2848 MW by 2030.
  • Grids Belgium has already exceeded the European targets in terms of interconnections by reaching 33% in 2021, far above the 10% target and also above the 2030 target of 15%. Belgium provides a satisfactory overview of the planned interconnections, both offshore (BE-UK and BE-DK) and onshore (BE-FR, BE-NL, BE-DE and BE-LU). Belgium also plans to further strengthen its internal network, with the reinforcement of the 380 kV grid, the placement of a dynamic assessment line and the completion of missing links. However, the plan could have mentioned further characteristics of network reinforcement, especially corresponding capacities. The plans mentions policies to support the distribution networks but does not provide any details on the provisions and the anticipated investment.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support Schemes Renewable energy generation is supported by preferential premiums under long-term purchase contracts for installations below 2035 kW, and will be continued. For rooftop installations below 30 kW, new long-term contracts for the purchase of electricity will be concluded. The plan mentions a residual budget for renewables Support Schemes from the 1st January 2023 of around 3 million EUR.
  • Prosumers and Citizens Bulgaria plans to support at least 10,000 households in their transition from inefficient fossil fuels to solar equipment, with a budget of 240 million BGN (122 million EUR). The plan mentions an enabling framework for the deployment of self-consumption and renewable energy communities, but, on the latter, does not provide any quantitative objective. Fully self-consumption installation also benefit from facilitated registration procedure, with no building permit.
  • Flexibility and Storage The deployment of demand-side response is mentioned, and the plan foresees a comprehensive programme for the digital transformation of electricity systems, with an overall budget of 611 million BGN (311 million EUR), including 370 million BGN (189 million EUR) under the Recovery and Resilience Facility. The objective on additional storage is also clearly mentioned, with 350 MW of local energy storage facilities. The support for renewables and storage amounts to 2 billion BGN (1 billion EUR). This includes both battery storage and hydro pumped storage.
  • Grids In line with the European recommendations, Bulgaria has set a target of at least 15 % electricity interconnection. In order to further integrate higher shares of renewable energy, Bulgaria plans a 12,320 MW nominal transmission capacity, which is 162% of the total renewable capacity. The plan provides a relatively detailed maps of planned and existing interconnections capacities to Romania, Turkey, Greece, Serbia and North Macedonia. Regarding energy security, the plan recalls the importance of coal and nuclear, which are considered indigenous energy sources. The integration of renewables is only partially tackled. The investment in distribution networks is mentioned, with the plan to reduce losses in networks, deploying smart grids and smart metering. However, the plan doesn’t mention any clear investment pipeline at distribution level.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The plan mentions the three-year RES planning and the corresponding tenders for market premia, with a gradual evolution into a market-based scheme. The overall budget for support to RES will be €1 bn from 2021 to 2030. Most of this fund, however, will be target to thermal renewable and hydro, while large-scale wind and solar will be supported through market-based mechanisms. A clear agenda with the volume of auctions would however have been welcome. The plan could also have mentioned the need for additional regulation of the PPA market. Currently, in the Croatian market, PPAs between renewable producers and buyers are handled through financial PPAs. There is not much appetite among energy suppliers to facilitate sleeved PPAs, and due to the mismatch between production and consumption, physical PPAs are challenging and not practiced.
  • Prosumers and citizens The plan foresees an information program targeted at prosumers, communities, aggregators, system operators and installers. It also mentions the development of support schemes adapted to RES communities and citizen energy. As a very positive feature, the plan mentions a monitoring of the number of, and energy generated by energy communities. The plan could have also mentioned the expected volume of prosumers among rooftop PV installations, and the volume of financial aid for prosumers.
  • Flexibility and storage The plan foresees a public call for the implementation of demand response projects between 2023 and 2030, as well as new regulatory frameworks for aggregators and ancillary services. Regarding storage, the plan mentions the deployment of a whole range of technologies including battery, hydrogen, pumped storage, heat, EV, compressed gas, and other innovative storage. The amount is estimated by €19.8mio and €13.3mio respectively at transmission and distribution level, mostly coming from the EU modernization fund. The plan could have mentioned, on the top of EU funding, the number of national expenditures and the potential upgrade of national rules (e.g., grid tariffs…) for storage. Also, the plan foresees support scheme for energy storage only via EU-funds. There is a lack of national measures (i.e., national subsidy scheme) for both utility and residential scale storage. The plan is also lacking measures to address the non-existence of grid connection rules for energy storage.
  • Grids The interconnection level of the country is already exceeding – by far – both peak load and installed capacity. The plan does not provide any capacity figures nor timeline for the reinforcement of interconnections with other Member States. On internal transmission capacities, while the plan clearly identifies the importance of RES-integration, it only mentions one power line, the 400 kV line Split-Rijeka.
  • Spatial planning and permitting The plan foresees development of sensitivity maps for RES projects, i.e., defining the so-called “Go-to” areas. RESC Croatia together with the experts identified 7.424 locations with a total area 101.825 ha for the solar PV. The plan envisioned the inclusion of Agri PV within the Spatial Planning Act that was officially incorporated through the Amendments to the Spatial Planning Act on June 29, 2023. The plan fails to establish and define all the conditions and requirements necessary for establishing a single contact point that would be the sole point of contact with the investors. Also, the plan does not provide development of the National Maritime Spatial Plan, which is the first step in establishing renewable go- to areas for offshore renewables. RES Croatia in the study Action Plan for the Uptake of Offshore Renewable Energy Sources in Croatia, funded by the EBRD identified more than 29,000 km2 of available area for offshore renewables.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes In general, the chapter on support schemes is limited to a short description of measures, with no information of the investment timeline or volume. The plan also fails to provide details of support scheme has been developed for ground-mounted PV.
  • Prosumers and citizens Cyprus has developed a plan for self-consumption and net metering from 2013 to 2024 for residential buildings and from 2018 to 2030 for commercial/industrial buildings. Regarding energy communities, a regulatory framework is being developed. However, the plan does not provide details on the continuation or even the level of support of the plan for self-consumption and net metering. The plan neither provides objectives in terms of prosumers or energy communities.
  • Flexibility and storage Currently, the electricity market in Cyprus does not support flexibility, aggregation, or demand response. These services will be allowed by 2024. The plan also includes a target of 10 MW / 20 MWh flexibility in the form of storage by DSOs. The plan also provides a target of 1000 kVA for each demand-response agent and 50MW of demand-response capacity by 2030.
  • Grids Cyprus mentions EuroAsia interconnector (between Greece, Cyprus, and Israel) to fulfil its obligations of 15% electricity interconnection by 2030. The plan also mentions two measures in the transmission grid for the integration of RES: smart compensation system on transmission substations, and upgrading of transmission lines with reducting, to increase transmission capacity. However, the plan could have detailed the new transmission capacity (or equivalent) resulting from the network upgrades, and the provisional agenda. The plan does not provide an analysis nor an investment plan for distribution grids upgrade.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support Schemes The plan proposes an à la carte approach for RES financial instruments, based on the fulfilment of the NECP trajectories and targets. The expected allocation of total public aid will be set by the Ministry of Industry in 2023, 2025 and 2027. However, no detail is provided in the plan as regard as the nature (CAPEX, OPEX, auction…) or the volume of the support. In general, the chapter on RES Support Schemes is relatively short and lacks details on implementation.
  • Prosumers and Citizens The plan presents the existing measures with a simplification of administrative procedures for small-scale PV below 10kW. This is a minimum requirement under the Renewable Energy Directive. Since January 2023, Act No 19/2023 provides that small-scale installations below 50 kW are not submitted to building permit. The plan also mentions the introduction of the recognition of energy communities, as provided in EU legislation, and the mobilization of the Modernisation Fund for energy communities. In January 2023, Czechia introduced an easier framework for energy sharing in apartment buildings, which is however yet to manifest in a relevant number of projects. € 530 million could be dedicated to energy communities (13 bn. CZK). However, the plan does not provides any target for prosumers or energy communities in in terms of installations. In addition, the legislative framework currently put forward for energy communities is extremely limiting (e.g. 10 members per community), which could significantly hamper the roll-out of energy communities.
  • Flexibility and Storage Demand-side flexibility, aggregation, smart metering and dynamic pricing are identified as strategic objectives. The plan foresees the design of an independent aggregator model for this purpose. However, no roadmap for the roll-out of Flexibility and Storage is provided by the plan and Czech law still does not define the framework for storage and flexibility.
  • Grids Czechia is planning to deploy interconnection capacities corresponding to the EU target of 15% by 2030. The plan provides a rather detailed investment pipeline in transmission grid, with a reinforcement of 400 kV lines by 2040, and an increase in transformation power. It also mentions the introduction of new technologies in the power system, however with no clear number on their penetration. A good point, the plan mentions the development of distribution networks, with a total of 81 new 110 kV substations. The plan also mentions the acceleration of investment in the modernisation of the distribution network by deploying soft- and hardware solutions. Nevertheless, no further information as per the volume of investment is provided.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The plan provides a comprehensive overview of legislative acts to support renewables, especially wind power, between now and 2030. For solar and heat pumps, it mentions phase out of PSO tariff on electricity bill. Technology-neutral tenders will be phased out to gradually move to market-based support mechanisms. The deployment of solar and wind is expected to be market-based only. However, a timeline of existing support schemes and their planned evolution would have been welcome.
  • Prosumers and citizens Renewable energy communities benefit from simplified procedures by requiring the Danish Utility Regulator to identify and monitor the removal of unjustified barriers and to oblige grid companies to cooperate with communities. Denmark has also enabled energy sharing and self-consumption through exemption of grid tariffs and electricity taxes. However, the plan could have provided more details on the measures to accelerate the uptake of prosumers, with clear figures on the expected uptake of self-consumption and community schemes. It is still very challenging to set up an energy community or an energy sharing scheme in Denmark.
  • Flexibility and storage The Danish Energy Agency’s reporting on market model 3.0 has set out a number of recommendations for continuing to improve the framework for flexibility and active customers in Denmark, including the framework for aggregators. While the plan identifies flexibility as a major challenge, the plan provides no clear milestone or measures for the implementation of market-based flexibility measures, including the participation of prosumers.
  • Grids Denmark’s current level of interconnectivity is 44.2%, significantly higher than the 2030 EU target of 15%. Through the Climate Agreement on Green Electricity and Heat of 2022, Denmark is planning to support the upgrade of both transmission and distribution networks. The plan also mentions the obligation for DSOs to publish network development plans and promote a flexible market. Denmark mentions the assessment of new interconnectors but does not provide any figures on capacities involved. This would be particularly important esp. given the planned RES-E deployment.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The plan provides a clear timeline for the volume of auctions between 2019 and 2025. The plan also foresees a phase-out of direct support for renewable energy by 2021, to be replaced by lower bids systems, with 500 GWh planned by 2024 and 2025. However, no further information is available since ANNEX IV is missing.
  • Prosumers and citizens No further information is available since ANNEX IV is missing.
  • Flexibility and storage No further information is available since ANNEX IV is missing.
  • Grids Estonia already exceeds the 2030 EU interconnection target, reaching 63% today. The next major step for Estonia will be the synchronization of the Baltic States’ electricity system in the synchronous area under EU law around 2025. It also mentions the completion of the EE-FI interconnection by 2030. The plan provides a comprehensive overview and timeline of planned interconnectors. However, the plan could have provided a more detailed investment plan on domestic transmission networks reinforcement, esp. in the view of integrating high shares of renewable energy.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The plan describes the existing premium system for renewables but provides no visibility on future auctions (if any). The energy aid scheme, which provides investment subsidies, could have been more detailed regarding the expected contribution to different technologies.
  • Prosumers and citizens Renewable energy communities are recognized and enabled in Finland. The plan describes the proposals to facilitate demand-side response but could provide a clear action plan and legislative measures on the top of it. No information is provided on the volume, the type of support or the roll-out of decentralized renewables.
  • Flexibility and storage Nearly 100% end-consumers in Finland already have smart meters, and Finland includes the plan to roll-out second-generation smart meters with a 15-minutes resolution by 2028. Dynamic pricing is already an option offered in all electricity contracts. On top of it, demand-side response is well-developed with already 1GW of DSR in 2022. The plan provides a comprehensive description of energy storage facilities, while the new investment should be mostly market-based. An indicative target on storage would however have been welcome.
  • Grids The plan provides a comprehensive overview of the existing and planned interconnection capacities, with a 400 kV – 800 MW between Northern Finland and Northern Sweden by 2025, bringing the transmission capacity to 27% peak load in 2025. It terms of internal transmission grid, Finland provides clear extensions by 3,200km of 400 kV lines and 2,000km of 110kV lines. Although the increase of capacity is clearly detailed, a map of different interconnectors would have been welcome. While the plan mentions market-based mechanisms for investment at DSO level, it could have been more detailed regarding the investment plans at distribution level.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support Schemes The plan proposes the development of mix tenders for renewable energy, including a part of complement to remuneration and a part of PPAs without support but with a guarantee scheme. As a good point, the plan mentions Agri-PV and repowering, the latter being mostly directed to wind projects. The plan, however, fails to provide a clear investment pipeline up to 2030.
  • Prosumers and Citizens The plan mentions increasing incentives for residential or corporate consumption to self-consumption, with the target of 25% of total installed capacity for C&I buildings and 10% for residential. France is actively supporting the deployment of citizens’ projects with e.g. bonus in invitations to tender and legislative provisions in the law on accelerations of renewable energies. France, however, does not intend to set a target for community energy schemes. The plan mentions the recent Renewable Acceleration Law, which will also improve the sharing of the value generated by projects for the benefit of residents, local and regional authorities and businesses. More details on policy and measures will be brought forward with the final version of the NECP.
  • Flexibility and Storage France plans to deploy 25 GW of flexibility capacity by 2030 and 35 GW by 2035. In terms of smart-meter rollout, France is already quite advanced, with 36 million low-voltage customers equipped with smart-meters today. However, the plan does not provide any quantitative milestones with regard to further deployment of smart-meters and smart grids. In terms of storage, the plan foresees an increase of 1,700 MW of hydro pumped storage capacities by 2035 and provides an increase from 5% in 2022 to 51% in 2030 in new registrations of battery electric light commercial vehicles. The plan could, however, have mentioned a target in distributed battery storage.
  • Grids The plan mentions the need to reinforce the grid in light of increased penetration of renewable energy sources. The plan mentions a 20% increase in investment in distribution grids by 2032, which should be revised in the long term to match the recommendations by Eurelectric to increase by 84% between now and 20502. The plan mentions the High Level Group on Interconnections in South-West Europe and the EPP multiannual programming to reinforce flexibility and interconnections, but fails to provide any quantitative assessment on the reinforcement of cross-border and national transmission capacities.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support Schemes The expansion of renewables is encouraged and controlled by the Renewable Energy Act (EEG). On top of it, 300 million EUR was deployed in 2023 for supporting rooftop solar deployment coupled with electric vehicles and storage. The plan, however, does not provide visibility beyond 2024 on the volume and characteristics of Support Schemes.
  • Prosumers and Citizens On energy communities, Germany is equipped with a comprehensive enabling framework, including access to consumers on a non-discriminatory basis, access to Support Schemes, and exemption from tender participation for installations below 6MW. The plan, however, does not include a specific target on prosumers or installed rooftop capacity.
  • Flexibility and Storage For real-time balancing of production and consumption, Germany is relying on the development of a liquid, integrated energy-only market under a single German bidding zone, and sector-coupling. The plan, however, provides no targets in terms of installed demand-response or storage capacities, neither at the distributed nor at the centralized level.
  • Grids The plan recognizes the paramount importance of grid deployment to integrate renewables and complete the European energy market. The rapid expansion of renewables in Germany requires swift extension of interconnection capacity, which will be realized simultaneously with national grid expansion. Regarding transmission infrastructure, Germany plans to implement around 14,000 km of lines, including 1,400 km of interconnections. There is, however, no detail on which Member States should be connected to on priority at what capacity. Regarding the distribution grid, Germany mentions grid expansion and network-related measures, with however no quantitative targets.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support Schemes Greece plans to support the uptake of RES and storage via competitive tender procedures through Contracts for Difference. It also foresees developing the framework for bilateral contracts (PPA), with the development of a digital platform. However, no clear agenda is provided on the amount and capacity expected under these calls.
  • Prosumers and Citizens The plan mentions a reserved capacity of 10 MW per substation to accommodate the needs of households, farmers and SMEs. The plan also mentions the programme ‘Photovoltaic at STEGI’ with 238 million EUR in resources from the Recovery and Resilience Fund to support PV and battery systems for exclusive self-consumption. Regarding energy communities and consumers, a dedicated envelope of 100 million EUR under the Recovery and Resilience Facility will be mobilized. Additionally, specific technical assistance and advisory mechanism will be established to support energy communities.
  • Flexibility and Storage The plan has clearly identified storage and demand-response as indispensable technologies to enable the penetration of RES. The total capacity of accumulator storage system is expected to reach 3.1 GW by 2030. In terms of support, the existing support scheme for RES will be extended to storage, with a capacity of battery storage of 1,000 MW. The possibility to extend the support to domestic PV with integrated storage is envisaged, with a target of >150 MW of small PV battery plans. The plan also envisions the inclusion of 240 MW of hybrid power plants by 2026.
  • Grids Greece plans to substantially reinforce its interconnection capacities with neighbouring countries, to reach the 15% interconnection target already by 2025, with an objective to reach an interconnectivity rate of 23.1% by 2030. The plan provides a clear and detailed investment plan in cross-border interconnection capacities up to 2035. Note that Greece has a particular situation with many autonomous islands that will also require internal connection capacities. The plan provides a good overview of the internal connections. However, the plan does not provide sufficient details on the necessary upgrade of the distribution grid.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The plan mentions the use of Renewable Energy Support Scheme (METÁR) to allocate capacity through technology-neutral tenders. Until 2026, the maximum annual new grant amount is HUF 45 bn. On solar power, the plan indicates, as part of the Recovery and Resilience Plan, the investment “Supporting of residential solar panel systems and equating heating systems in combination with solar panel systems”. By 2026, the aid could result in around 140-175 MW installed solar capacity. The mobilization of RRF to support residential solar systems will be 185,9 bn HUF. However, the plan does not provide an overview of the support schemes and investment pipeline past 2026.
  • Prosumers and citizens The plan mentions that an initial legislative framework for aggregators and energy communities was established in 2021, with the plan to prepare the necessary legislative amendments by 2024 to ensure their proper functioning. While the plan indicates that the target of 200 000 households with an average of 4 kW rooftop solar panels will be significantly exceeded by 2030, it does not provide an updated trajectory for prosumers. While the plan recognizes the importance of energy communities, it fails to identify the expected volume of energy communities by 2030.
  • Flexibility and storage The Government intends to build energy storage facilities in Hungary with a total capacity of around 500-600 MW by 2026, which could increase to 1 GW by 2030. While demand-response is identified as an upcoming challenge, the plan fails to provide any details on volume, support and roll-out of technology such as smart-meters and connected appliances. On storage, the plan mentions that the energy storage market is practically non-existent today (currently around 20-25 MW installed battery capacity) but does not provide clear milestone and pipeline for future capacities.
  • Grids The transmission capacity of cross-border high voltage lines already reaches 50%, far above the 15% EU target by 2030. Additionally, Hungary will increase its cross-border capacity to 60% by 2030, with the planning of the Serbian-Hungarian cross-border capacity. However, in general, the plan does not provide any detail on the interconnections or reinforcements of internal transmission capacities, neither in terms of capacity nor in terms of timeline of investment. The reinforcement of the distribution grid is also absent from the NECP.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support Schemes Ireland has been supporting renewable energy since 2009 via the Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff scheme (REFIT). However, the REFIT scheme does not cover solar PV installations. For them, the renewable energy support scheme (RESS) provides support through an auction scheme that grants projects a two-way floating premium. The first auction (RESS 1) secured over 1 GW of new capacity, amounting to an increase of over 15% to Ireland’s renewable generation capacity. The RESS 2 and RESS 3 followed with similar results. The plan announces the upcoming RESS 4 and RESS 5, but provides no details on the expected capacities covered by the auctions. On the top of RESS, Ireland promotes corporate PPAs. The volume of expected PPAs however remains unclear.
  • Prosumers and Citizens As a positive point, the RESS includes a community benefit funding of €2/MWh. Ireland also benefits from an additional scheme, the small-scale renewable electricity support scheme (SRESS), for small-scale generation (50kW to 1 MW), with a target of at least 500 MW of local community-based projects by 2030. On the top of it, Ireland has developed a micro-generation scheme for prosumers with the aim to support 380MW by 2030, which would amount to 60,000 homes and 9,000 non-domestic installations.
  • Flexibility and Storage To foster investment in flexible generation, including Demand-Side Unit (DSU) and battery storage, Ireland has developed a Capacity Remuneration Mechanism (CRM), allocated through national auctions. The deployment of DSU has also been stimulated by the Day Ahead market reform with more efficient short-term price signals. Ireland also plans to deploy 2,4 million smart meters by 2025, compared with 1.5 million in 2023. However, the plan lacks a clear description of the future needs for flexibility and clear targets in terms of storage and demand-response.
  • Grids Ireland energy market interconnection capacity currently stands at 500 MW in a single interconnection to the UK. This capacity will be increased to 1700 MW by 2027 including direct interconnection between Ireland and the EU via the Celtic Interconnector. Additionally, Ireland plans a further connection with the UK by 2030, bringing the total interconnection capacity to 2,450 MW. However, since most of the capacities are connected to the UK (the EU only represents a small fraction of interconnections), it is likely that Ireland will not be able to reach the 15% interconnection with EU neighbours by 2030.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The plan mentions a comprehensive description of competitive bidding mechanisms under Decree No 199/2021. It also mentions the promotion of PPAs, with the development of a dedicated platform and guarantee schemes, and an indicative target of an additional 16GW to be mainly covered by PPAs. While legislative Decree No 199/2021 provides for auctions for the fixed-term contract of new renewables, no information is available in the NECP regarding the volume and implementation details of these support schemes.
  • Prosumers and citizens Decree-Law No 162/19 (Article 42a) provides incentives for self-consumption and energy sharing. The plan clearly sets an objective of 5 additional GW by 2027 for self-consumption and energy communities. The plan also foresees specifically targeted at energy communities, including access to information, guidelines, and support measures. An extensive set of measures under Decree No 199/2021 is presented, including building standards. The plan also provides for measures related to PV in the agricultural sector. As of today, the Ministerial Decree for Energy Communities has not been published. However, without the implementation of the new incentive mechanisms, which are also aimed at plants with a capacity of up to 1 MW, and located in larger perimeters, it will not be possible to reach the target set by the NECP.
  • Flexibility and storage The plans provide a tool for the development of self-consumption and storage under the investment M2C2 1.1 of the NRRP, which provides for specific resources (EUR 2,2 million) for the financing of renewable energy plants coupled with storage systems. An indicative amount of expected battery storage could have been useful.
  • Grids One of the biggest challenges of Italy in terms of internal transmission grid development will be the transport of renewable electricity from the South and the islands to the Northern consumption points. In this context, the plan provides clear network planning of transmission capacities until 2030. The plan also mentions the need to reinforce the distribution grid, with however no concrete planning, allegedly due to the decentralized nature of renewable – esp. PV- generation. The target of 15% interconnection by 2030 is likely to be missed. One of the reasons would be the increase of total inland generation capacity, mostly driven by the uptake of renewables.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Grids Latvia already has a 50-80% interconnectivity with its neighbours (compared to installed capacity), and plans to reach 60% by 2030. The rest of the chapter is still under construction.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The plan provides information on a tender for renewables in marine areas of the Baltics Sea, with a first expected delivery of electricity by 2028. The plan also details the support schemes for commercial and industrial sector, as well as for the public sector, with the planned intervention of EU funding for total budgets of resp. €105mio and €107mio. However, the plan does not provide any information on the agenda, volume and expected investment pipeline for ground-mounted solar PV.
  • Prosumers and citizens The plan provides a clear target of 30% prosumers (compared with the total number of consumers) by 2030. It also provides a support scheme for prosumers with a premium of €234/kW up to 10kW, and a total budget from EU funds of €160 million between 2023 and 2029. Additionally, support is envisaged for investments by legal persons, farmers, and renewable energy communities in onshore solar and wind power plants. In this field, the plan proposes an interesting scheme to support RES communities and fight energy poverty at city level, with planned operating grants of €78.5mio. Additionally, the plan could have provided clear milestones, volume and expected investment pipeline to support RES deployment by farmers or energy communities.
  • Flexibility and storage The plan provides clear objectives of storage deployment at household level, with the intervention of the EU structural funds for a volume of €3.3bn and 20 MWh between 2023 and 2029. Lithuania also envisions a capacity mechanism to support demand response and storage. However, the plan does not provide any details on the support of demand-response, or the total expected battery capacity (including large scale and hybrid power plants).
  • Grids The interconnection level of Lithuania is already meeting the EU target of 15% by 2030, with a share of above 60% today. The plan also mentions the construction of 11 internal transmission lines, with several of them coming into operation by 2025. However, the plan does not provide any details on the future investment in interconnection to meet the challenge of integrating their energy system to the European electricity market and to start synchronous operation with the European continental electricity grid by 2025.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The plan describes 15-years support schemes for renewables and includes enlargement of support schemes for small-scale PV installations. The measures targeting buildings are well detailed, with the introduction of State support for existing buildings, including industrial and agricultural buildings. For large-scale power plants, a tender is introduced. As an interesting additional feature, the plan mentions a call for tender for agri-PV systems. However, a clear agenda for the upcoming call for tenders up to 2030 could have added visibility to the investment pipeline.
  • Prosumers and citizens The plan mentions the existing call for tender for self-consumption, which will be maintained in 2023. Clear milestones and capacity allocation have been identified. On energy communities, the plan envisions to accompany these news market players in their RES projects. It also increases the fiscal threshold for selling excess electricity. It also mentions the potential inclusion of storage in large PV tenders. The plan could have mentioned the continuation of the call for tender for self-consumption and the planned allocated capacities post-2023.
  • Flexibility and storage Luxembourg envisions an increase of the bonus for PV self-consumption and makes battery storage eligible. It also envisions to increase the share of prosumers participating in the market, with no clear number, however. The plan would have benefited from a clear timeline that describes the evolution of storage capacities, both a centralized and decentralized level. Regarding demand-response, only the Energy Data platform is mentioned.
  • Grids The level of interconnection with Germany will be increased from 230% to 400% in 2030 (as a share of maximal annual load). Additionally, the national transmission network will be reinforced esp. in the North of the Country, by replacing 65kV lines with 110 kV lines. However, the measure 912 “Network Development Plans” lacks details. A focus could have been made on the necessary upgrade of the distribution network, which could have enabled more solar PV installations to be connected.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The promotion of solar PV is ensured via a feed-in-tariff scheme. The plan provides relatively detailed description on the design of the support schemes. For PV systems above 40kWp, a competitive bidding system is in place. While the plan provides a good overview of existing schemes, it would have been welcome to better understand the project pipelines and dedicated budgets for future schemes until 2030.
  • Prosumers and citizens As described above, the plan provides an overview of the support schemes for small-scale PV. However, the plan could have detailed the expected penetration of self-consumption, and the role that prosumers would play in the future energy system.
  • Flexibility and storage The plan mentions the expansion of battery storage via the investment in two utility-scale battery storage systems by 2026 to facilitate RES-integration. At distributed level, households applying for a grant for a new PV installation are also eligible to benefit from financial support towards a behind-the-meter battery storage system. The plan mentions the current behind-the-meter battery penetration with 489 installations and 3.55 MWh capacity by 2022 but fails to provide any figure regarding the future installations by 2030, both at centralised and decentralised level. Regarding demand-response, the plan mentions that the electricity market structure doesn’t incentivize demand-response, therefore the assessment of demand-response and smart solutions are still at an early stage.
  • Grids The plan mentions the construction of the second sub-sea interconnector with Italy by 2026, to comply with the 15% interconnection target by 2030. With regards to the investment in national transmission system, there is no transmission system in Malta and the country only operates at distribution level. As a positive point compared with most NECPs, the plan provides a relative detail of the investment at distribution level including voltage regulators, transformers, substations, and low voltage feeders. The plan indicates an investment of €106 million between 2018 and 2022 in the network but does not provide any provisional amount between 2023 and 2030.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The scheme to support sustainable energy production and Climate Transition (SDE + +) is mentioned, which will participate in the roll-out of at least 35 TWh of renewable energy by 2030. However, there is no details on the volume of tenders or support schemes for solar PV, nor any further information on the evolution of support schemes.
  • Prosumers and citizens The Netherlands support prosumers through tax exemptions and net-metering schemes. It also includes a specific support scheme for energy communities. As in the previous version, the plan doesn’t provide any details on the expected size of the prosumers markets and no specific targets on renewable energy communities and citizens-led initiatives.
  • Flexibility and storage The plan mentions the suppression of barriers to storage, and the government aims to promote storage by investing in battery innovations and making batteries mandatory in large-scale solar parks. Flexibility in the form of demand response, storage or adjustable capacity will be intertwined in the electricity market and traded through the different markets, therefore the plan doesn’t provide any target or specific support schemes for flexibility. Residential storage is currently double taxed and not incentivised due to the net metering scheme.
  • Grids At transmission level, the plan provides clear interconnections capacities forecast up to 2030. While grids have been rightfully identified as the major bottleneck for solar PV deployment, there is no clear vision on grid capacity increase at distribution level.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support Schemes The plan mentions the obligation to purchase renewable energy for installations below 500 kW, which will be lowered to 400 kW in 2024 and 200 kW by 2026, to comply with State Aid rules. The plan also tackles renewable energy certificate of origin, and renewables auction system. For the latter, CfDs will be granted to RES generators for a period of 15 years, typically for installations above 1MW. For small-scale installations (<1MW), the support is granted via feed-in-tariffs and feed-in premia (resp. below 500kW and above 500 kW). The plan also mentions a financial instrument to co-finance micro-PV installations. However, the plan fails to provide details on the volume of auctions and installations falling under Support Schemes, and does not include any forward-looking project pipeline. In general, The auction system in Poland for renewable energy projects, including photovoltaics, struggles with the problem of low reference prices, which affects the attractiveness of this type of support for renewable energy producers. Analysis shows that in 2023, the reference price for solar power plants was set at 389 PLN/MWh, yet the minimum price at which energy was sold in auctions amounted to 272.91 PLN/MWh for PV plants. A raise in the auction price would increase interest in auctions and encourage more investments in PV.
  • Prosumers and Citizens Poland established a definition of prosumers in 2016. At the end of 2023, there were almost 1.4 million renewable self-consumers in Poland. The country has adapted the settlement system to a net billing system in 2022. Further support to prosumers will be granted through billing at hourly prices. When it comes to energy communities, the concept was introduced in 2023 in Polish law, and an objective of 300 community schemes is announced for 2030.
  • Flexibility and Storage The plan mentions measures to increase the flexibility to accommodate more RES, but fails to provide any concrete figures. The plans also mentions the development of demand-side response to accompany the deployment of prosumers schemes. Storage is also mentioned, but the plan still fails to provide any quantitative objective for Flexibility and Storage. Rapid PV capacity growth to 18 GW in 2023, with potential 6+ GW yearly increase, emphasizes need for large-scale energy storage and flexibility services integration. These are vital for efficient renewable energy use and reducing network load amid challenges in connecting new sources. National Energy and Climate Plan should highlight importance of large-scale energy storage, omitted in current document, for stabilizing power supply and reducing grid load in Poland. Comprehensive approach to flexibility services crucial for enhancing distribution system efficiency and ensuring energy security, requiring regulatory changes for effective provision.
  • Grids Poland is expected to reinforce its cross-border connections by 2030, with the completion of the Poland-Lithuania cross-border link, and the support to Baltic States to synchronize with continental Europe by 2025. However, there is no clear indication of capacity or volume of investment in interconnection capacities. The development of photovoltaics relies heavily on modernizing the transmission infrastructure, currently overloaded and in poor condition. The NECP vaguely acknowledges this need without a clear plan for modernization. With photovoltaic capacity surpassing 12.4 GW in 2022 and a record increase of 4.7 GW in a year, there's an urgent call for expansion and modernization of transmission infrastructure. The lack of transparency in connection possibilities poses challenges, with numerous grid connection refusals hindering new renewable energy projects. A commitment to modernize the transmission network and simplify administrative procedures is crucial and should be integrated into the NECP. When it comes to the distribution network, the plan has identified the need to support distribution network operators’ efforts to expand and upgrade networks, with however no quantitative targets or amount.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The plan describes past auction mechanism for allocating capacity for renewables. However, the plan fails to provide a detailed volume and design of upcoming auctions.
  • Prosumers and citizens The plan provides a detailed analysis of the stay of play of self-consumption and includes measures to support self-consumption and energy communities. It also foresees. an online platform for self-consumption and renewable energy communities, staffing and skilling, system integration of prosumers. However, the plan could have provided a quantitative assessment of the future uptake of prosumers and energy communities.
  • Flexibility and storage The plan foresees an increase of storage capacities, with clear targets of 3,9GW and 1GW, resp. centralized via pumped hydropower and decentralized via batteries. However, the plan would have benefitted from a clear roadmap on demand-response.
  • Grids Portugal provides a good analysis of the current energy system and sets a clear target for interconnections, corresponding to the EU objective of 15% by 2030. The plan also mentions the PDIRD-E and PDIRT-E as the programs to support the upgrade resp. of the distribution and transport grids, with no target, however. A plan for the upgrade of distribution grids would have been welcome.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support Schemes Under the measure 'increase of the domestic generation capacity from PV power plants,’ Romania presents a rather detailed installation plan from 2023 to 2050, with an intermediary target of 5.8 GW by 2030. It is assumed that these investments are ground-mounted only. The plan mentions State intervention but fails to provide any details on the volume or format of the intervention. The plan also includes a support programme for rooftop PV, with the aim to reach at least 2.5 GW by 2030. Here the plan provides more details on the support (up to 4,000 EUR / installation), with a total allocated budget of 500 million EUR.
  • Prosumers and Citizens Since 2020, all market participants can have access to market individually or by aggregation. While the plan presents a target for rooftop PV, there is no specific objective for prosumers and self-consumption. Renewable energy communities are mentioned under the rooftop PV measure, but no specific recognition or support for these market players is provided.
  • Flexibility and Storage For storage, Romania has set a specific target of installing 240 MW of battery storage capacity by 2025, with potential for storage of 480 MWh. The section on demand-response, dynamic pricing and net-metering is, however, relatively limited and does not provide any quantitative target. Storage is fundamental for the country to balance the fluctuation of RES capacities. In this sense, the 240 MW is not sufficient. For Romania to align with the 2030 European targets, the country needs 4 GW of energy storage capacities to balance network demand, comprised of 2 GW battery storage capacity and 1.5 GW in electrolysers for H2 production, and the rest in hydro pumping. 
  • Grids Romania plans to reach the 15% interconnectivity level by 2030 through a reinforcement of HU->RO and RO-BG capacities, with a clear multi-annual plan including respectively 720 MW and 1,490 MW. This should help the country reach a 21% interconnectivity level. The modernisation of the distribution network is also mentioned with the Measure 48. More than 1 billion EUR will be dedicated to the distribution grid. However, the focus here seems to be on reduction of losses, not on flexibility and RES integration. This is all the more problematic as grids are the main bottleneck for PV. Many TSO projects are blocked or delayed, with some completion deadlines pushed back by up to two years. The same issue also affects DSO projects. Moreover, the high cost of grid reinforcement still falls on the shoulders of investors.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes Slovakia is expected to support renewable electricity generation via feed-in tariffs for projects up to 500 kW and by auction schemes above. The support schemes will apply from 2019 to 2030, with a respective amount of electricity generated of 0,5 TWh and 1,5 TWh. The plan also mentions support for decentralised RES, RES for SMEs and households. However, the total amount of electricity generation supported is 2,5 TWh (where data is available), which is substantially below the 7,6 TWh-E presented in 2.1.2.
  • Prosumers and citizens The plan mentions the support to small-scale electricity generation with the aim of maximising the self-consumption ratio. However, the plan does not provide any details regarding the support of prosumers and citizens, neither in terms of capacity nor in terms of financial support volume.
  • Flexibility and storage By 2021, 431433 smart meters had been installed under regional distribution system operators (DSOs) out of the final planned number of 414388. The plan also mentions, under the recovery and resilience plan, an investment in 52 MW of installations increasing grid flexibility, without however providing any breakdown of technologies. However, Slovakia does not have a specific objective for increasing the flexibility of the Slovak electricity system for greater integration of RES. National flexibilities and targets should be based on the assessment and quantification of flexibility needs following the transposition and implementation of new EU legislation on electricity market design reform.
  • Grids Slovakia is already meeting its 2030 target of 15% interconnection. The plan mentions the Danube InGrid (Danube Intelligent Grid) project, which aim is the wider integration of renewables into the distribution grid through the use of smart technologies at transmission and distribution level, including their smart management. The plan also mentions the ACON (Again COnnected Networks) cross-border smart grid, which will include i.e., the digitisation of more than 200 kilometres of 22 kV lines. However, the plan fails to provide a clear mapping and investment pipeline for cross-border interconnections. In terms of deployment of intra-country transmission lines, the plan remains vague as of the necessary investment to absorb the highest shares of renewables. It also fails to provide details on the necessary investment at distribution level (except from smart grids under Danube InGrid PCI).
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The chapter on policies and measures is still under construction.
  • Prosumers and citizens The chapter on policies and measures is still under construction.
  • Flexibility and storage The chapter on policies and measures is still under construction.
  • Grids Slovenia interconnection capacity already exceeds the 15% EU target, with an 80% ratio. A very positive element is the mention of the necessary upgrade of the distribution grid and the interaction with the transmission grid. While the plan rightfully identifies the challenges of the distribution and transmission grid, it fails to provide clear investment pipeline, capacity increase and typology of support.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes The volume of auctions for renewables has been increased commensurately with the overall ambition. In the current NECP, there is a general objective to set auctions for the construction of at least 3,5 GW of RES every year, out of which more than 50% will be solar power. There is a calendar for auctions (2022 – 2026) regarding the minimum amount of MW by year and technology (1.800MW/year for PV). Compared with previous NECPs, the information has improved. However, the plan should provide details on the design of the auctions and the criteria for capacity allocation. Also, the auctions are only designed until 2026, whereas the sector needs to have visibility at least until 2030.
  • Prosumers and citizens The plan introduces a quota for citizen-led renewable initiatives, which is an improvement compared with the previous plan. The plan includes details and quantified objectives in terms of prosumers’ engagement. It also includes an investment volume for prosumers. As in the previous version, the plan could provide a detailed agenda for prosumers’ support schemes, including soft financing mechanisms.
  • Flexibility and storage The plan lists a series of initiatives to promote storage and an objective of 22GW storage by 2030, a substantial increase compared to the previous plan. The investment plan on storage is clearly detailed. However, no details are available on the breakdown per technology nor on the additional vs. existing storage. On demand-response, there is the mention of specific regulation and policy support, but no clear target on the power allocated or the number of aggregators.
  • Grids The NECP references the network development plans, and the investments needs in the sector. However, the plan does not detail new investments on electricity grids but only points out the role of TSOs plan (plan for 2021-2026 and an upcoming one for 2024-2029). The draft mainly focuses on grid interconnections rather than reinforcing internal grids. Additionally, given the high RES-E target and the criticalness of the grid access, the plan could have been more detailed regarding the necessary investment until 2030, especially at the distribution level.
Updated 2023
Key challenges:
  • Support schemes Sweden mentions the tax reduction schemes for prosumers, although an estimation of the volume of tax reduction schemes would have been useful.
  • Prosumers and citizens The plan mentions the obligation for low-voltage consumers, introduced by Ordinance 1999:716, to deploy net metering systems to facilitate the calculation and reporting of transferred electricity. Prosumers also benefit from tax reduction schemes for excess electricity injected to the grid, and from tax reduction for the installation of individual solar PV systems. However, the plan would have benefitted from more details on the expected uptake of prosumers, including PV and storage capacities. Also, there are no incentives for energy communities.
  • Flexibility and storage The plan mentions several developments around flexibility and market integration, including Nordic Balancing Model and capacity markets. At consumer level, a tax reduction of 50% is granted for storage. Sweden has no specific objectives in terms of demand-response and storage. It relies on incentives for network operators to provide such services to end-consumers.
  • Grids Sweden has a Net Transfer Capacity (NTC) exceeded the desired level of 30% of peak load at all interconnectors, and most of the times even exceeded 100%. The plan also provides a clear description of NTC related to RES capacities, which also exceeds 30% in all cases. It also mentions the extension of the capacity of the SE-FI and SE-DE interconnectors. Regarding internal transmission capacity, the plan mentions grid reinforcement to manage congestion on the West coast and on the North-South corridor. Sweden has no explicit target for the level of electricity interconnection by 2030, but Sweden had an electricity interconnection level of 23 % at the end of 2021, already higher than the EU’s 2030 target of 15%. On grid reinforcement, although the plan mentions some of them, the progress is still too slow.

October 2021

From October 2021, the EU Commission makes an assessment of the member states’ progress every two years.


March 2023

By the 15th of March 2023, and every two years thereafter, member states should report to the Commission on the status of the implementation of their NECPs (progress report), including progress on reaching the targets, updates on policies and measures, and projections.


June 2023

By the 30th of June 2023 member states must submit a draft update of the NECPs to the Commission or justify that the current plan remains valid.


June 2024

By the 30th of June 2024 member states should notify the Commission of a final update to the NECPs unless they have justified that the current plan remains valid.

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